Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that can develop when strep throat or scarlet fever isn't properly treated. Strep throat and scarlet fever are caused by an infection with streptococcus strep-toe-KOK-us bacteria. Rheumatic fever most often affects children who are between 5 and 15 years old, though it can develop in younger children and adults. Although strep throat is common, rheumatic fever is rare in the United States and other developed countries. However, rheumatic fever remains common in many developing nations.
Acute Rheumatic Fever (ARF)
Rheumatic fever - NHS
Objectives: We reviewed the literature to evaluate the role of common laboratory tests and to examine the recent progress in the laboratory diagnosis of pediatric rheumatic diseases. Methods: We used the PubMed database to search for the keywords "laboratory," "erythrocyte sedimentation rate" ESR , "C-reactive protein" CRP , "blood cytology," "procalcitonin" PCT , "complement system," "ferritin," "antistreptolysin O titer" ASO , "autoantibodies," "genetic studies," in conjunction with "rheumatic disease in children" and "pediatric autoimmune diseases. Results: Laboratory tests ESR, CRP, blood cytology, complement system, ferritin, ASO titer play an important role in confirming a diagnosis and in the follow-up of rheumatic diseases in the pediatric age group. The ESR is probably the most widely measured index of the acute phase response. Measurement of CRP is very useful in the rapid diagnosis of infection as a progressive increase can be shown in the first 48 hours. Also, the subsequent fall in serum CRP concentration on resolution of inflammation is useful for monitoring the efficacy of treatment. Cytopenia and different forms of anemia can be encountered in many rheumatic diseases: they can be related to disease activity or to therapeutic side effects.
Acute rheumatic fever in an adult is a rare entity. We present a year-old man of mixed ancestry, including Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, who presented with a 6-week history of migratory polyarthralgia and fever with a recent history of purulent lower extremity wounds and a remote history of acute rheumatic fever in childhood. The diagnosis of recurrent acute rheumatic fever was confirmed by elevated Antistreptolysin-O titers and Anti-DNase B titers. This case presentation showcases a Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander with acute rheumatic fever in both childhood and adulthood following pyoderma infection, with a delay in diagnosis and management for both episodes.
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